Don't worry about the past too much, though it is good you are considering options in the future to offset perceived issues with the past.
AdCom has familiarity with a very large number of schools and universities around the world. If necessary, AdCom can do due diligence to determine where your school fits into the "competitive landscape" and scale of academic rigor.
The name brand of a school is less important in and of itself and only valuable insofar as it provides some indicator of the potential rigor and competitiveness of the academic program in which a candidate has engaged in the past.
If you want to get an MS in Finance, only do so if you think it would be valuable to you even if you did not eventually get accepted into Wharton. If so, go for it; if not, don't bother. Depending on what you wish to study at Wharton and what your career objectives are, though, there might be some questions as to why you need an MS and an MBA from Wharton.
Some food for thought.